2017 June 1 18 day
In Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, which is under construction in the 12 century, two musicians who made a big mark in the history of Western music appeared and later became known as Notre Dame School.
One of the first was Leoninus. In the Gregorian chant, which is originally a monophonic chorus, it is the part where the predecessor sings alone, and developed a two-voice organum style in which the tenor at the base is sung with a melody (melisma). In addition, he came up with the idea of the rhythm mode method of notating the length of notes in the score, and completed "Organum Encyclopedia", which was the beginning of polyphony (polyphonic music), which is a major feature of Western music.
It was Perotinus who succeeded to this Leoninus.
According to a record written by a 1st century foreign student from England, known as the example "The 4 Anonymous", "Magistel Leoninus is the best organista (organum singer/composer) and the mass. And made a collection of songs called "Organum Encyclopedia" for the Holy Divinity and used until the time of Magistel Perotinus, Magistel Perotinus, the best discantor (discantus singer and composer) I made many better quails.”
Organum, sung by the predecessor who was a 2 voice in the days of Perotinus, seemed to have a strong improvisational color, but it was further expanded to 3 and 4 voices by Perotinus. The Discantus style, which uses the counter melody (crow's lazuli) sung by the tenor himself of the 1 voice, which was usually sung by extending the low melody of chant, has also been developed.
Now, the notation is the notation of the pitch and the duration of the pitch, but on the conventional musical notation only the pitch was expressed. In the Gregorian chant, this was sung like a sutra, but in Notre Dame music it became necessary to match the length of the lyrics to match the four voices, and the rhythm mode method was conceived, It was established. As a result, songs were expressed and sung in a basic pattern that carved the rhythm of 3 beats (or 6 beats of 8).
Thus, the chant, which was originally sung quietly for the priests in the monastery, was sung on a scale suitable for many worshipers in the imposing large cathedral. It becomes a big, long and gorgeous one, and the tendency to compose becomes stronger. That's why they sometimes call them the first composers in history. However, there is no musician or composer in the modern sense in the church at that time, and it seems that the priest was involved in one of the tasks, and even Perotinus did. I think he was one of them again.
The Notre Dame School of "Organum Encyclopedia" continued to be sung in Paris even after more than 1 centuries and spread to various parts of Europe, and became the basis of Western music.
Source: Masayoshi Kanazawa "Medieval Music Spiritual History", Tatsuo Minagawa "Music of the Middle Ages/Renaissance", Tatsuo Minagawa "History of Music Score", Akio Okada "Western Music History", etc.